A political and social history of modern Europe by Carlton J. H. Hayes

By Carlton J. H. Hayes

Excerpt: ...Pretender." The Methuen Treaty (1703) used to be additionally beneficial: it allowed English retailers to promote their manufactures in Portugal with no main issue; in go back for this concession England diminished the tasks on Portuguese wines, and "Port" supplanted "Burgundy" at the tables of English gents. The Act of Union of 1707 used to be no longer unfavourable both, for it validated universal alternate rules, customs, and excise in England and in Scotland. To the purely own union among the crowns of britain and Scotland which were inaugurated (1603) by way of the 1st of the Stuart monarchs of britain now succeeded less than the final of the Stuart sovereigns a company union of the 2 monarchies below the name of the dominion of significant Britain (1707). Sidenote: Accession of the Hanoverians (1714); persisted Decline of Royal energy Upon the dying of Anne (1714), the crown handed Footnote: in line with the Act of payment (1701). to her cousin, the son of Sophia of Hanover, George I (1714-1727). the recent king, not able even to talk the English language, less to appreciate the complex traditions of parliamentary govt, used to be neither capable nor nervous to rule, yet used to be content material in basic terms to reign. The company of management, accordingly, was once passed over to a bunch of ministers who strove not just to thrill their royal grasp yet to continue the good-will of the main occasion in Parliament. Sidenote: upward thrust of the cupboard when you consider that this tradition, with the various customs that have grown up approximately it, has develop into a so much crucial a part of the govt of the uk this day, and has been copied in recent years via many different international locations, it is very important comprehend its early heritage. Even ahead of the accession of the Tudors, the nice Council of nobles and prelates which had prompt and assisted early kings in issues of management had surrendered so much of its genuine capabilities to a ranking or so of "Privy Councilors." The Privy Council in flip grew to become unwieldy,...

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1836), antiquated but extremely readable; Mrs. Julia Cartwright, Isabella the Catholic (1914), in ”Heroes of the Nations” Series; H. M. Stephens, Portugal (1891) in ”Story of the Nations” Series; F. W. Schirrmacher, Geschichte von Spanien , 7 vols. (1902), an elaborate German work, of which Vol. VII covers the years 1492-1516. THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE. Cambridge Modern History , Vol. I (1902), ch. ix, a political sketch; James (Viscount) Bryce, The Holy Roman Empire , new ed. revised (1911); William Coxe, History of the House of Austria , Bohn edition, 4 vols.

Lybyer, The Government of the Ottoman Empire in the Time of Suleiman the Magnificent (1913); Prince and Princess Lazarovich-Hrebelianovich, The Servian People, their Past Glory and their Destiny , 2 vols. (1910), particularly Vol. II, ch. , 4 vols. (1834-1835), and Nicolae Jorga, Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches nach den Quellen dargestellt , 5 vols. (1908-1913), especially Vol. II, 1451-1538 , and H. A. Gibbons, The Foundation of the Ottoman Empire (1916), covering the earlier years, from 1300 to 1403.

The nobility already had outlived its usefulness, yet it retained its oldtime privileges. [Sidenote: The Peasantry] In striking contrast to the nobility–the small minority of land-owning 37 aristocrats–were the peasantry–the mass of the people. They were the human beings who had to toil for their bread in the sweat of their brows and who were deemed of ignoble birth, as social inferiors, and as stupid and rude. Actual farm work was ”servile labor,” and between the man whose hands were stained by servile labor and the person of ”gentle birth” a wide gulf was fixed.

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