By Bernier P. (ed.), Lefrant S. (ed.), Bidan G. (ed.)
This edited paintings comprises 8 wide, review-type contributions via major scientists within the box of man-made metals. The authors have been invited via the organisers of the overseas convention on technological know-how and know-how of man-made Metals '98 (ICSM'98) to study the development of analysis long ago twenty years in a unifying and pedagogical demeanour. the current paintings highlights the state of the art of the sphere and assesses the clients for destiny learn.
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Extra resources for Advances In Synthetic Metals. Twenty Years of Progress in Science and Technology
Irregularly substituted PATs possess structures in which unfavourable head-to-head (HH) couplings cause a sterically driven twist of adjacent thiophene rings, resulting in larger bandgaps with consequent loss of high conductivity and other desirable properties (see chart 16) . The synthetic strategy towards regioregular PATs involves the use of an asymmetric coupling reaction for the polymerization of asymmetrically substituted thiophene 102 and 104 [144,145]. McCullough and Lowe were the first to prepare regioregular head-to-tail coupled PAT (scheme 24) .
Polyphenylenevinylenes and polyphenyleneethynylenes The most popular way of making poly-para-phenylenevinylene (PPV) 17 comprises a precursor route introduced by Wessling and Zimmermann [ 10]. The starting compounds are sulfonium salts available from the reaction of ot,oL'dihalogenated-xylene with acyclic or non-cyclic aliphatic thioether, which are subjected to a base-induced polymerization, yielding the water-soluble precursor polyelectrolyte 63. The mechanism of the reaction has been intensively studied , whereby 1,6-elimination from 61 yielding a quinoid intermediate 62 is certainly one important step (see scheme 11).
This is of particular interest for molecular electronics, since oL,to-thiol end-functionalized PPEs were designed to bridge the gap in nm length between two electrodes . Other approaches towards tolane oligomers and polymers include metathesis reactions (scheme 20b) , the Stephens-Castro reaction of copper(I)arylacetylenes 89 with iodoarenes 90 (scheme 20c) , which is less valuable due to the difficulties of preparing cuprous acetylides and the violent reaction conditions, and the elimination of hydrobromic acid from the corresponding stilbene bromides 91 using alcoholic potassium hydroxide (scheme 20d) .