Advances in the Science of Victorian Brown Coal by Chun - Zhu Li

By Chun - Zhu Li

During the last decade, huge examine has been performed as regards to coal as one of many world's top strength assets. the present and destiny prestige of this source is a subject of substantial curiosity to the biggest global economies, together with the USA, Japan, China and Europe.

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Carboxylate groups are also important. Non-Aqueous Titration. One of the earlier methods to quantify the carboxyl groups in Victorian brown coal has been non-aqueous potentiometric titration [83,84]. In a strongly basic solvent, carboxylic acids behave as strong acids with phenols somewhat weaker. g. in a dry box flushed with N2 although a trace amount of H2O can be tolerated in the solvent. The coal sample suspended in anhydrous ethylenediamine (EDA, H2NCH2CH2NH2) is magnetically stirred; the difference in potential between two antimony electrodes (one acting as the reference electrode) is measured [83] until the system approaches equilibrium.

Each spectrum is grouped into three major regions for the integration purpose: 220 - 170, 170 - 77 and 7 7 - 0 ppm, corresponding to carboxyl/carbonyl, aromatic and aliphatic carbons respectively. Absorption by ketone/aldehyde structures at -210 ppm is generally small. 5. Attempts were also made [101] to use ^^C-13 CP/MAS and H-1 combined rotation and multiple pulse nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CRAMPS) to identify carboxylic acids. 6. However, they considered that their quantification of COOH and C=0 groups were not very accurate due to low signal-to-noise ratios.

The pore volume and porosity of the brown coal can be calculated from its apparent and true densities: Pore volume (cm'^/g) = (2-6) Porosity (%) = f l . ^ l x l O O (2-7) structure and Properties 31 where dy{^ and d^e are the densities determined using mercury and helium as displacement fluids, respectively. The main problem with the determination of brown coal density using mercury or helium as displacement fluids is that the coal normally needs to be dried prior to measurement. As was discussed above, the complete removal of water would cause changes in the porous structure of brown coal.

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