By Irwin E. Alber
Engineers have to gather “Back-of-the-Envelope” survival abilities to procure tough quantitative solutions to real-world difficulties, quite while engaged on initiatives with huge, immense complexity and extremely restricted assets. within the case reports taken care of during this booklet, we exhibit step by step examples of the actual arguments and the ensuing calculations got utilizing the quick-fire process. We additionally exhibit the estimation advancements that may be bought by utilizing extra specified physics-based Back-of-the-Envelope engineering types. those varied tools are used to procure the options to a couple of layout and function estimation difficulties bobbing up from of the main advanced real-world engineering initiatives: the gap travel and the Hubble house Telescope satellite tv for pc.
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Extra resources for Aerospace Engineering on the Back of an Envelope (Springer Praxis Books)
2, I’ve drawn a sketch of a crude 747 aircraft with some relevant dimensions. These dimensions are based on my personal visual recollection of the 747 jet aircraft that I ﬂew on as a passenger to Australia about 10 years ago. 3 Gathering the input data needed for the calculation I recall the 747 had four engines and some pretty large wings. I estimate that the wing, on each side of the fuselage, is close to 100 feet in length, or about 30 m. The width of each wing is perhaps approximately 1/3rd of its length, call it 10 m.
Let’s speculate what that added information might be in order to improve our next BotE estimate for payload mass. 5 Level-3 estimate: cargo mass delivered by a two stage vehicle; based on a revised estimate for second stage structural mass fraction During the second stage of the ascent, the single biggest structural component is the external tank that supplies the propellants to the Orbiter’s engines. It can be thought of simply as a very large thin-walled pressurized vessel. 1 Questioning the magnitude of the Level-2 structural mass fraction Our model calculations indicate that once the ﬁrst stage solid propellants have been consumed in the ﬁrst two minutes of ﬂight, the initial mass for the second stage of ﬂight is about 700,000 kg.
If m ) 1, then the ratio m=ðm þ 1Þ approaches unity. 11 we also have that d ¼ L À b. Hence the approximate value for the distance d (between the secondary and primary mirrors) is d % 5:5 m ð1:18Þ which is, of course, the focal length of the primary, F1 D. When Cassegrain telescope systems are constructed, the separation distance d between the two mirrors must be set very accurately to prevent distortions of the focal plane image . 6 [Ch. 6 m or 12%. 6 m or 9%. So at 7 m our very simple optical model has given us a pretty good estimate for the optical package length, L.