Applications of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence to

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In the last three years the trend to computer control (as opposed to plug board and special-purpose devices) has resulted in computer controls on virtually all industrial robots. The method of programming industrial robots has, in the most popular and prevailing usage, not included the use of a language. Languages for robots have, however, long been a research issue and are now appearing in the commercial offerings for industrial robots. We review first the two prevailing programming methods. Programming by the lead-through method is accomplished by a person manipulating a wellcounterbalanced robot (or surrogate) through the desired path in space.

Research knowledge and practical industrial experience are accumulating. The Army can and should begin to take advantage of what is available today. 39 CRITERIA: SHORT-TERM, USEFUL APPICATIONS WITH PLANNED UPGRADES The best way for the Army to take advantage of the potential offered by robotics and AI is to undertake some short-term demonstrators that can be progressively upgraded. The initial demonstrators should • • • • • meet clear Army needs, be demonstrable within 2 to 3 years, use the best state of the art technology available, have sufficient computer capacity for upgrades, form a base for familiarizing Army personnel--from operators to senior leadership--with these new and revolutionary technologies.

The phrase most often used is "adaptive behavior," meaning that the robot using sensors ors will be able to deal properly with changes in its environment. Of the five human senses--vision, touch, hearing, smell, and taste--vision and touch have received the most attention. com 51 APPLICATIONS OF ROBOTICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (DARPA) has sponsored work in speech understanding, this work has not been applied extensively to robotics. The senses of smell and taste have been virtually ignored in robot research.

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