Athena Unbound: The Advancement of Women in Science and by Etzkowitz H., Kemelgor C., Uzzi B.

By Etzkowitz H., Kemelgor C., Uzzi B.

This compelling paintings exposes the hidden boundaries that confront girls at each juncture alongside the clinical occupation course. Its brilliant own debts supply a sobering view of the consequences those hindrances have at the own lives of ladies. The authors argue that girls can reach the medical office via effectively dealing with "social capital," these networks and relationships scientists depend upon for pro help and new principles. this is often important studying for all scientists and social scientists, and for girls contemplating a systematic profession.

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As mentioned above, when differences are acknowledged, as in graduate women’s programs, females are negatively construed as the same (in some way needy or deficient) and not viewed as individuals. Thus, by focusing on difference, this approach minimizes similarities between males and females while obfuscating institutional sexism. On the other hand, adherence to a nodifference model ‘makes man the referent . . women must aspire to be GENDER , SEX AND SCIENCE as good as men’ (Hare-Mustin and Maracek, 1988).

In contrast, daughters were expected to be ‘kind, unselfish, attractive, loving and well mannered [and grew] up in a more structured and directive world than males’ (Block, 1984). With few exceptions, these studies reflect how adult reactions to babies based on presumed sex perpetuate cultural beliefs about masculinity and femininity. Beginning in infancy, adults speak to and touch girls and boys differently. Sex-typed toys are offered by both parents with ‘boy toys’ providing more active physical manipulation and feedback from the physical world.

Differences between boys and girls appear at an early age as part of the social creation of the ‘self’. As classically formulated by philosopher George Herbert Mead (1934), the child learns to ‘take the role of the other’ in play and other social relations. The self is thus constituted through a reflexive interplay of mirroring events. ’ Much of our fate thus depends upon what other people think of us and how we respond to them. Children are influenced by the appraisals of others and respond according to those appraisals.

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