Biosilica in Evolution, Morphogenesis, and by Werner E. G. Müller, Mikhael A. Grachev

By Werner E. G. Müller, Mikhael A. Grachev

Lake Baikal is the oldest, inner most and such a lot voluminous lake in the world, comprising one 5th of the World’s unfrozen clean water. It hosts the top variety of endemic animals recorded in any freshwater lake. till lately it remained enigmatic why the sort of excessive variety developed within the remoted Lake Baikal. targeting the sponges (phylum Porifera) as an instance, a few solutions are supplied to primary questions about evolutionary forces. The attribute function of those animals is they shape their polymeric silicic acid skeleton enzymatically. This strategy is explored utilizing smooth molecular organic and mobile organic innovations to stipulate thoughts to manufacture novel fabrics acceptable in biomedicine and nanooptics.

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The Dzhida seamount represents large-scale allochthon. The lower part of the Dzhida seamount includes large tectonic blocks of ancient oceanic crust (mafic and ultramafic rocks). The top of the section is represented by subalkaline basalts, limestones, silicilitic sediments, and dolomites. Limestones are often represented by oolitic varieties. They are pure, with a carbonate content of 96–98%. The admixture is mainly represented by autigenic quartz. Silicites form separate layers and interlayers in the limestones, but rarely among the volcanites.

The basement complex of the Tuva–Mongolian terrane concludes the Gargan sub-terrane (Fig. 1). This sub-terrane composed of amphibolites, tonalite, and granite-gneisses with relicts of mineral paragenesis reflecting high-grade metamorphic alteration (granulite metamorphism). 7 Ga (Kovach et al. 2004). The Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover of the Tuva– Mongolian terrane is represented mainly by carbonate rocks including dolomites and limestones with layers of bauxites and phosphorites which were deposited under a sub-platform geodynamic setting.

1974; Mats 1993). V. I. Demonterova On the basis of palinology combined with thermoluminescence dating, Trofimov et al. (1995) have extended the paleo-Manzurka River outlet up to the Late Pleistocene (TL dates of 78 ± 20 Ka and 133 ± 30 Ka). All studies agree that initiation of the paleo-Manzurka River outlet took place in the Early Pliocene (before ca. 4 Ma as estimated by correlations of palinocomplexes of the paleoManzurka and volcanic regions of northern Mongolia). It should be noted that the results of Trofimov et al.

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